Document Type : علمی- پژوهشی


1 professor, Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies,Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor Department of Persian Language & literature, University of Tehran, Iran



Nezami Ganjavi, a Persian poet of the sixth century AH, has been introduced as a Turk in some directional studies of the last few decades. In this article, we have tried, firstly, by referring to the works of Nezami Ganjavi, in which there is no doubt about their attribution, and secondly, by referring to sources that have existed in this regard from the distant past to the present. And also published research and analysis on the subject under discussion, to examine the language of the military. In this study, it became clear that the mother tongue of the Iranian military dialect has been one of the various dialects in the history and vast geography of Iran, to which we have received many poems known as Fahlaviyyat in the margins of texts and manuscripts. The language of Nezami poetry was Persian Dari and there is no credible evidence that the verse was written in Turkish.


Abstract:Abu Muhammad Elias ibn Zakki Moayyad known as Nezami Ganjawi, is the Persian poet of the sixth century AH, that Turkish poems have been attributed to him in some recent studies. In this article, we have tried, first of all, to refer to the works of Nezami Ganjawi, in which there is no doubt about their attribution, and their ancient manuscripts, and secondly, citing sources from the distant past to the present in this regard. There are also researches and published analysis related to the subject under discussion, to study the Nezami's language and the Language of people of Ganja in his time. In this study, it became clear that The language of the people of Ganja and its adjacent lands was one of the Persian dialects in the sixth century, and the poets who lived at that time in the courts of princes and kings of this region and even some of these princes and kings wrote Persian poetry, which are mentioned in ancient Arabic and Persian texts.For example, according to Tabari, Muhammad ibn Ba'ith (d. 235 AH), the Arab ruler living in Marand, wrote Persian poetry. In addition, kings such as the Shervanshahs, who were also praised by Nezami and were praised in Persian, claimed that their lineage went back to the king of Sassanid, Bahram e gour . The existence of many Persian poets who lived in the region of Azerbaijan and Arran during this period that only in Nozhat al majales, more than 50 Persian poets has been recorded in the four cities of Ganja, Shervan, Teflis and Bilqan shows that the language of the people of this region who were aoudiances of these poets was Persian and the dominant culture of these areas was Iranian culture. The first language of Nezami was the persian dialect, in which we have received many poems known as Fahlaviat in texts and manuscripts.

For example, we can mention the books of Nozhat Al-Majalis by Jamal Khalil Shervani, Letters (Name ha) of Eyn Al-Qozat Hamedani, Al-Mojam of Shams Qais Razi, The Manuscript Collection of Safine ye the Tabriz, The Selected History (Tarix e gozide) of Mostowfi Qazvini, Mersad Al-Ebad of Najm Razi.

  The language of Nezami's poetry was Dari Persian, And Nezami himself has mentioned this issue in various places in his works, and on the other hand there is no significant evidence that his poems was written in Turkish.

Some people have quoted evidence from Nezami's works in which he calld his ancestry non-Iranian or refers to his Turkish poems. In this article, we have shown by citing ancient manuscripts of Nezami's works that this evidence does not appear in the ancient manuscripts and is an addition to the scribes.and also In this article, we have shown that the Turkish poems attributed to Nezami are from a poet in the 9th century AH named Nezami Qaramanli who has written poetry in three languages: Turkish, Persian and Arabic.

 This poet from Konya came to Iran in his youth and lived in Iran for many years. Numerous copies of Nezami Qaramanli's divan are available in Turkish libraries, and a researcher named Haluk Ipkten published the divan based on 10 manuscripts in 1974 in the Atatürk University publishing series in Ankara. In this divan, Qaramanli's Arabic and Persian poems are recorded in Arabic / Persian script and are distinct and obvious from his Turkish poems written in Latin script. The first poem of this divan is an ode in praise of the Holy Prophet which begins with two Arabic verses and then comes four Persian verses, and from then until verse 65, which is in Turkish, phrases and verses have been Arabic. In this 200-pages divan, the last 30 pages of the book are dedicated only to the poet's Persian poetry, and in addition, in divan's Turkish poems, numerous scattered verses in Persian and some Arabic are included. This poet has chosen his nickname Nezami which can be seen in the final verses of his poems. This nickname has led some scholars to attribute his poems to Nezami Ganjavi. In the Encyclopedia of Islam (in Turkish), a detailed entry has been dedicated to this trilingual poet and information about his life and works has been recorded, which shows that he was an important poet during his lifetime, and he also paid special attention to Nezami of Ganja's poetry and has been influenced by him.

Nezami Qaramanli has also paid attention to the poems of other Iranian poets and has even translated their poems into Turkish and included them in his poems. Poets such as Sanayi Ghaznavi, Amir Moezzi, Zahir Faryabi, Kamaluddin Ismail Isfahani and Hafez Shirazi.

 He has also imitation poems to some poets such as Kamaluddin Ismail of Isfahan and Hafez of Shiraz.  

Keywords: Nezami Ganjawi poetic language, Fahlaviyat, Dari Persian, Ganja, Nezami Qaramanli.



Main Subjects

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