Document Type : علمی- پژوهشی


Academy of Persian Language and Literature, Tehran, Iran


The first possible work in Persian in Anatolia
After the establishment of the Seljuks in Anatolia, the Persian language flourished there and caused many works in Persian to be written in that land. Much research has been done on what work was first written in Persian in Anatolia, and Iranian and Turkish scholars have written articles in this field. Earlier, Habish Ibn Ibrahim of Tefilissi (d. 559 or 579 A.D.) was considered the first Persian writer of the Roman Empire to have written several works in Persian of that land. But in recent years, another treatise entitled "Keshf’ al Aqaba" has been included in a collection of treatises written in the eighth century. The date of writing of this work is estimated to be late 5th century, which is very interesting to consider and if this hypothesis is proven, the date of writing of the first work in Persian in Anatolia goes back more than half a century and in terms of history of Persian language and literature in Anatolia It is important. In this article, while briefly introducing the treatise, there are indications that this work can be accepted as the first possible work in Rome.


The First Probable Persian Book in Anatolia[1]


Persian language has a long history in Anatoly. Many scholars and experts consider the officialization of the Persian language in that land after the establishment of the Seljuks and their rulers there. Familiarity of the Seljuks with the Persian language and Persian culture before reaching Rome on the one hand and the fact that their offices are Iranian and their writing, reading and speaking in Persian on the other hand has become one of the reasons for the officialization of that language in that land. This article introduces one of the works that is probably the oldest known work in Persian so far in that country. Much research has been done on early Persian works in Anatolia, and articles have been written in Turkish and Persian by Iranian and Turkish scholars. Among them are Ahmad Atash and Mohammad Amin Riyahi. Scholars consider Kamâl al-Din al-Hobish of Tbilisi to be the first Roman Persian writer and consider his works to be the first known works of Persian, which is not far from reality. This article introduces a work that is probably the first known work in Persian in Anatolia. This work, called Kašf al-Aqaba, was first discussed by Michael Bayram and introduced for the first time as the first Persian work in Anatolia. But as far as the author has searched, this work is not known in Iran. In this article, with the help of various sources and trying to find other evidence to prove or strengthen this possibility, Kašf al-Aqaba will be introduced


 The name of the treatise is Kašf al-Aqaba, written by Elyâs ibn Ahmad Qaisari known as Ibn Kamâl. This treatise is kept in the collection No. 5426 in the Fâtih Library of Istanbul. The date of writing of the manuscript is 726 AH. The author of the work has described his job as “supervisor of the mentioned city”. The name of the person to whom the treatise was presented is not mentioned. But there is information in the text of the treatise that gives the audience clues about the author’s possible praised Sultan is Malek Ahmad Qâzi, probably, the founder of the Dâneshmandiyye dynasty in Anatolia. In terms of stylistic evidence, it can be said that this treatise was written in the style of writing scientific texts of the fifth century. The whole treatise in this collection has 17 sheets (34 pages) which consists of four "articles" and each "article" has its own divisions with different titles such as "chapter", "aspect" and "argument". It seems that Ibn Kamâl has used various scientific sources in writing this treatise, especially the writings of the Islamic period


Persian language and literature throughout history has a very wide geographical territory, which is evidenced by the existence of works such as Kašf al-Aqaba. Regardless of whether the hypothesis presented in this article is true or not, what matters is the breadth and depth of the Persian language beyond the borders of modern Iran throughout history. Apart from Kašf al-Aqaba, which we discussed in this article, many works in the territory of Anatolia have been written in Persian, and the authors of those books have cited the general understanding of Persian as the reason for choosing this language for their works. There is nother manuscript in this collection of Fâteh library which has been translated from Arabic into Persian and the translator has named it Hedâyat al-qaby fi axlâq al-Nabi. At the beginning of the treatise, the translator explicitly considered the reason for translating the work into Persian as "the generality of its benefit" and it is obvious that Persian language in that period and in that land, in addition to being an official language, was also considered a common language. It is especially noticeable in the land ruled by the Seljuk Turks. Now, if it is proved that in the fifth century, in a land where the sultans and rulers were Turkic-speaking, scientific treatises were written in Persian the importance of the issue would be multiplied, especially it should be noted that the current scholars of that country first proposed such a hypothesis. Therefore, two conclusions can be drawn from this article; First, the presence of the Persian language beyond the current borders of Iran, especially in the land of Anatolia, which with this hypothesis reaches at least the end of the fifth century. A considerable number of them now remain, written in Persian, and the list of many of these ancient works was not published by Persian-speaking Iranians but by Turkish-speaking scholars such as Fuat Köprülü and Ahmad Ataš


[1] Mahdi Rahimpur: Assistant Professor of Academy of Persian Language and Literature



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[1] Mahdi Rahimpur: Assistant Professor of Academy of Persian Language and Literature


Main Subjects

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