Document Type : علمی- پژوهشی


University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran


The Enjobment of meanings is one of the literary arrays that has not yet been properly studied. The breadth of the scope and the role it has as an art form in the construction of several literary forms and genres, as well as its function in suspending speech, link it to a number of literary industries and types. Among these, some such as "guarantee", "graded" and "ugly and beautiful" are considered as its sub-sections, and some, such as "perception" and its sub-sections, overlap it in some important features, which we refer to as equivalent arrays. we do. Considering that waqf, like many other literary arrays, has a history of use in Arabic literature, in the present study, before examining the rhetorical opinions of Persian writers, it has been followed in Arabic rhetorical sources.Explaining that the endowment of meanings was known as "guarantee" in most ancient Arabic sources and was discussed as one of the defects of rhyme; Whereas in Persian rhetoric from the very beginning it has been considered not only a defect but also one of the virtues of poetry. This research seeks to define and classify this rhetorical industry more efficiently.


Mowquf-ol-Ma’ani (Enjambment): A Historical-Rhetorical Analysis and A Redefinition of an Important and Ambiguous Literary Device




“Mowquf-ol-Ma’ani” (closest device to “enjambment” in English versification) is a figure of speech with linguistic origin which has common structural aspects with other frequent rhetorical devices and can be compared with them. Mowquf or Mowquf-ol-Ma’ani which are first mentioned in books of rhetoric with different names such as “tazmin” or more specifically, “prosodic or attributive tazmin” are related to versification; however, one cannot find a satisfactory definition of this device.


Review of Literature

The researchers did not find any independent and comprehensive study of Mowquf-ol-Ma’ani by the same name or by any other equivalent names. There are of course entries in textbooks of rhetoric on this device using similar examples, which focus on a rather entertaining aspect of this device by the name of “modarraj”.

Since Mowquf-ol-Ma’ani, like many other rhetorical devices in Persian, has an Arabic root, we need to have a look at rhetorical texts and references in Arabic literature to properly illuminate the history of this term in Persian literature and then undertake a review of ancient Persian books of rhetoric.

It seems that Akhfash (born in 830 A.D.) is the first Arabic rhetorician who has openly mentioned tazmin and its acceptability and believes that it cannot be totally dismissed in favor of the independence of couplets. However, Jahiz (born in 870 A.D.) has made only a fleeting remark of Mowquf-ol-Ma’ani as one of the instances of weakness of speech. The first Persian book in which tazmin is discussed as a subject at hand is Tarjoman ol-Balaghah, written in 5th century AH.



Mowquf-ol-Ma’ani is a verse or prose text whose unit, whether line or beit (couplet) or sentence, is not lexically or semantically independent but is necessarily dependent on latter units; i.e., if it is a verse, the line or couplet is connected to the next identical unit which is another line or couplet and may be more than one or some couplets. Naturally, in prose texts, the identical units are later sentences.

From the researchers’ point of view, the main type of mowquf is the one whose intonation is rising and raises the anticipation of the attentive listener for the rest of the text by its suspense, which may continue for one line to several couplets. On this basis, the examples mentioned by Rami as related to mowquf to words cannot be considered the main mowquf. For example, he mentions that the second type of mowquf is the one in which “the meaning of the first line is lexically stopped; it will be completed if the second line is read.” In fact, the suspense of the text is so low that initially the normal audience may feel the line is complete and has no relation to the later line. This situation is specially more remarkable in the second couplet, since its second line, contrary to the second line of the first couplet, has no lexical dependence on the first line. In other words, we consider this type of dependence as semantic and believe that the lexical dependence which is created in the syntactic structure heightens the degree of suspense in the text to the highest degree. This is what we witness in compound clauses, whether in one couplet or more.

There are different types of mowquf based on units of verse, language and format. Language itself includes grammar and syntax. In grammatical run-on lines, the focus is on the words but in syntactic run-on lines, the foundation of syntactic structure is complex sentences which may be conditional of non-conditional and related to each other for different reasons.

There are two types of syntactic run-on lines which are both considered independent devices in rhetoric. It can be noted that some devices such as taqsim (division) and its equivalents such as jam (addition), tafriq (substraction), and laf o nashr (dissemination) have two sides; i.e., since the poet or the writer aggregates or segregates two or more items in one or more couplets or sentences according to certain reasons and interpretations, he or she has at the same time used the devise of toushi’ or izah (explanation) after ambiguity, too.

The run-on lines which are based on grammatical structures have received a lot of attention due to their linguistic peculiarity and have somehow entered the field of typology although they do not have the variety of syntactic run-on lines.



Mowquf-ol-Ma’ani, known in ancient Arabic and Persian books on rhetoric as tazmin and usually considered as a defect of rhyme, is not actually a defect of speech; in fact, as an artistic technique, it has been the basis for the creation of a number of types and subtypes and formats and devices in Arabic and Persian literatures.

The different names of the same term in books on rhetoric, such as tazmin, mowquf, moquf al-akhar, hamel-e mowquf, hamel-e mowquf-e motavalled are actually different fors of mowquf that are minutely different from each other. It is also used in the creation of formats and types such as mostazad-e mowquf and nazm-ol-nasr and some other devices such are taqsim mowquf.  This is different from its essential overlap with devices such as estedrak and its subtypes in which suspense is structurally important and the meaning of speech is completed only when it is finished.

Nevertheless, mowquf or enjambment is natural to every language. It exists not only in Arabic, but also in English literature as well as in Persian contemporary modern poetry which does not follow the classical structure of line and couplet.



Ahmad el-Ezam, H. (2007). Al-Tazmin al-aroozi. Jameat ol-Qora, 43, 481-504.

Akavi, E. F. (2006). Al-Mojamal-mofassal fi oloume ol-belaghat. Dar ol-Kotob ol-Elmiah.

Akhfash, A. S. (1970). Ketab ol-qavafi (E. Hasan, Ed.). Ehya ol-Torath ol-Qadim.

Anusheh, H. (1997). Daneshnameh Adabi Farsi [Persian literary encyclopedia]. Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance.

Aqa-Sardar, N. F. (1983). Dorre-ye Najafi (H. Ahi, Ed.). Foroughi Bookstore.

Al-Askari, A. H. (1981). Al-Sanaetein (M. Qamiha, Ed.). Dar ol-Kotob ol-Elmiahr.

Ebn-al-Asir, A. Z. N. (1955). Al-jame ol-kabir fe sanaeate al-manzoum va al-mansoor (J. Mostafa, Ed.). Al-Majmae al-Elmi al-Eraqi.

Ebn-e Jenni, O. (2008). Al-Khasaes (A. Hendavi, Ed.). Dar-ol-Kotob al-Elmiah.

Ebn Tabtab Alavi, A. (1985). Ayar al-sher (A. N. Al-Mane, Ed.). Dar-ol-Oloum.

Ebn Vahav, E. (n. d.). Al-Borhan fi vojoohe al-bayan (H. M. Sharaf, Ed.). Maktab al-Shabab.

Farhang-e Urdu loghat [Dictionary of Urdu language]. Karachi: Board of Urdu Langauge.

Hedayat, R. (1952). Madarej ol-belaghat. Ketabforoushi Marefat.

Homaei, J. (1991). Fonoon-e belaghat va sana’at-e adabi [Rhetorical and literary devices]. Homa.

Hoseini, A. B. (2007). Badaye ol-sanaye (R. Mosalmanian Qobadiani, Ed.). Mahmoud Afshar Foundation.

Al-Jahez, A. A. (2002). Al-Bayan va al-tabein (A. Bumolhem, Ed.). Dar va Maktabat al-Helal.

Al-Jorjani, A. (1986). Al-Ta’rifat. Naser Khosrow.

Al-Khafaji, M. (1982). Serr ol-fasahat. Dar ol-Kotob ol-Elmiah.

Kafi, G. (2012). Karkerd-e digargoon-e qafieh dar ghazal-e moaser [The transformed function of rhyme in contemporary ghazal]. Kavoshnameh, 13 (25), 135-163.

Kashefi Sabzavari, M. H. V. (1990). Badaye al-afkar fi sanaye el-ash’ar (M. J. Kazzazi, Ed.). Markaz.

Kazzazi, M. J. (1994). Badi’ [Rhetoric]. Markaz.

Khatib Tabrizi, Y. (2008). Al-Kafi fi al-arooz va al-qavafi (E. Sham ol-Din, Ed.). Dar ol-Kotob ol-Elmiah.

Al-Madani, S. A. S. (1968). Anvar al-rabi fi anvae al-badi (S. A. Shaker, Ed.). Matbaeat ol-Na’man.

Marouf, Y. (1999). Al-Arooz al-Arabi al-basit. SAMT.

Al-Marziani, A. A. M. (1995). Al-Movashah fi ma’akhez el-olama ala al-shoara (M. H. Sham-o-Din, Ed.). Dar ol-Kotob ol-Elmiah.

Masoud Sa’d Salman (2011). Divan (M. Mehryar, Ed.). Research Center for Human Sciences and Cultural Studies.

Matloub, A. (2006). Mojam ol-mostalahat al-belaghia va tatavvoreha. Dar-ol-Arabia a-Mosoat.

Mirsadeqi, M. (1994). Farhang-e tafsili estelahat fann-e sher va sabkha va maktabhaye an [Comprehensive dictionary of technical terms in poetry and its styles and genres]. Ketab-e Mahnaz.

Mohammad Sedigh (1970). Omidi Tehrani. Helal, 101, 23-27.

Neshat, M. (1973). Zeib-e Sokhan [Adornment of speech]. Sahami Chap-e Kotob-e Iran.

Preminger, A. (1974). Princeton encyclopedia of poetry and poetics. Princeton University Press.

Qadamat bin Jafar, A. (1978). Naqd el-sher (A. Khafaji, Ed.). Maktabat ol-Azhariah.

Al-Qirvani, E. R. (1981). Al-Amdah fi mahasen el-sher va adabeh va naqdeh (M. M. Abdol-Hamid) Dar ol-Jeil lel-Nashr va al-Touzie.

Radfar, A. (1996). Farhang-e belaghi-adabi [Rhetorical-literary dictionary] (A. Atash, Ed.). Asatir.

Rami, S. (1963). Haqayeq ol-hadayeq (S. M. K. Emam, Ed.). University of Tehran Press.

Al-Ramai, A. (1976). Al-Nakt fi e’jaz al-Quran (M. Khalaf-Ollah & M. Z. Salam, Eds.). Dar ol-Ma’aref Be Mesr.

Rastgoo, M. (2004). Honar-e sokhan-araei [The art of embellishing the speech]. SAMT.

Sahbaei Dehlavi, E. (n. d.). Qoul-e Feisal. Matba’at Monshi Nol-Keshvar.

Sa’lab, A. (1995). Qavaed ol-sher (R. Abdol-Tavab, Ed.). Maktabat ol-Khanji.

Shafiei Kadkani, M. R. (1994). Mousiqi-e sher [The music of poetry]. Agah.

Shafieioun, S. & Mir-Mohammadi, S. V. (2009). Tazriq, nouei naqizeye hanjar-setiz-e tanz-amiz dar adabiat-e Farsi [Tazriq, a type of humorous antinormative parody in Persian literature]. Adabpazhouhi, 10, 27-56.

Shafieioun, S. & Mir-Mohammadi, S. V. (2011). Sher-e bi-ma’na dar adabiat-e Farsi va Englisi [Nonsense poetry in Persian and English literatures]. Literary Criticism, 4 (15), 165-186.

Shafieioun, S. & Mir-Mohammadi, S. V. (2019). Pishnahad-haei baraye saman-dahi-e tashttot ta’arif-e este’areh va taqsimatash dar belaghat-e Farsi [Suggestions for the categorization of different definitions for metaphor and its types in Persian rhetoric]. Classical Persian Literature, 2 (29), 1-34.

Shafieioun, S. & Mir-Mohammadi, S. V. (2021). Fazkhrieh dar abad-e Farsi [Fakhrieh in Persian literature]. New Literary Studies, 215, 1-26.

Shams ol-Olamaye Gorgani, M. H. (1998). Ebdae al-badaye (H. Jafari, Ed.). Ahrar-e Tabriz.

Soyouti, A. (1984). Al-Etqan fi oloum ol-Quran (M. A. Ebrahim, Ed.). Offset Print in Qom.

Tabatabaei, M. (1988). Farhang-e estelahat-e sana’ate-e adabi [Dictionary of literary expressions and devices]. Astan-e Qods Razavi.

Taj ol-Halavi, A. M. (1962). Daqaeq ol-sher (M. K. Emam, Ed.). University of Tehran Press.

Al-Tanoukhi, E. Z. (1909). Al-Aqsa al-gharib fi elm el-bayan. Matbae al-Saadat.

Tanoukhi, A. M. (1978). Ketab ol-qavafi (A. Owni, Ed.). Maktabat al-Khanji.









Main Subjects

Akâvi, Anʾâm Fowâl (2006), Al-Moʾjam al-mofassal fi olum al-balâqat, Beirut:Dâr al-ketâb al-elmiyyat.
Al-Tunji, Mohammad (1998), Al-Moʾjam al-mofassal fi al- adab, Beirut:Dâr al-ketâb al-elmiyyat.
Anuše, Hasan (1997), dâNEš-Nâmeye adabiye fârs,Tehran:VezArat-e Farhan va eršâd-e eslâmi.
Âqâsardâr, Najafqoli Mirzâ (1983), Dorreye najafi, ed. Hoseyn Âhi, (n. p.): Ketâb-forušiye Foruqi.
Askari, Abu Helâl (1981) Al-Sanâʾatayn, ed. Mofid Qahime, Beirut:Dâr al-ketâb al-elmiyyat.
Axfaš, Ab al-Hasan Saʾid ibn Masʾadah (1970),  Ketâb al-qavâfi, ed. Ezzat Hasan, Damascus: Ehyâʾ al-torâθ al-qadim.
de Bruijn, Johannes Thomas Pieter (1999), Šeʾr-e sufiyâneye fârsi, tr. Majdoddin Keyvâni, Tehran: Našr-e markaz.
Ezâm, Hâšem Ahmad (2007), “Al-Tazmin al-aruziy”,  Majalleye jâmeʾat al-qorâ, vol. 43, pp. 481-504.
Farhang-e Ordu loqat (1992),  Karachi: Ordu loqat bord.
Hedâyat, Rezâ Qoli Xân (1952), Madârej al-balâqat, Shiraz: Ketâb-forušiye Maʾrefat.
Homâyi, Jalâloddin (2010), Fonun-e balâqat va sanâʾât-e adabi, Tehran: Ahurâ.
Hoseyni, Amir Seyyed BorhAn al-Din Atâʾollâh ibn Mahmud (1985), Badâyeʾ al-sanâyeʾ, ed. Rahim Mosalmâniyân Qobâdiyâni, Tehran: Bonyâd Mowqufât-e Mahmud Afšâr.
Ibn Aθir, Ab al- Fath Ziyâʾ al-Din (1955), Al-Jâmeʾ al-kabir fi sanâʾat al-manδum wa al-manθur, ed. Javâd Mostafâ, Bagdad: al-Majamaʾ al-elmiy al-erâqi.
Ibn Aθir, Ab al- Fath Ziyâʾ al-Din (1995), Al-maθal al-sâʾer, ed. Mohy al-Din Abd al-Hamid, Beirut: al-Maktabat al-ʾasriyyat.
Ibn Jenni, Osmân (2008), al-Xasâʾes, ed. Abd al-Hamid Hendâvi, Beirut:Dâr al-ketâb al-elmiyyat.
Ibn Maʾsum Madani, Ali Sadr al-Din (1968), Anvâr al-rabiʾ fi anvâʾ al-badiʾ, ed. Šâker Ali Šokr, vol. 6, Najaf: Matbaʾat al-noʾmân.
Ibn Senân Xafâji, Mohammad ibn Abdellâh (1981), Serr al-fasâhat, Beirut:Dâr al-ketâb al-elmiyyat.
Ibn Tabâtaba Alavi, Ab al-HasanMohammad ibn Ahmad (1984), Ayâr al-Šeʾr, ed. Abd al-Aziz ibn Nâser al-Mâneʾ, Riadh: Dâr al-olum.
Ibn Vahab, Eshâq ibn Ebrâhim (n.d.), Al-Borhân fi vojuh al-bayân, ed. Hanafi Mohammad Šaraf, Cairo: Maktabat al-šabâb.
Jâez, Abu Osmân Amro ibn Bahr (2002), Al-Bayân va al-tabyin, ed. Ali Abu Molham, Beirut: Dar al-maktabat al-Helâl.
Jong-e xatti, n.513 motaʾalleq be Ketâb-xâneye Lâlâ Esmâʾil.
Jorjâni, Ali ibn Mohammad al-Šarif (1986), Al-Taʾrifât, Tehran: Nâser Xosrow.
Kâfi, Qolâmreza (2012), “Kârkerd-e digargun-e qâfiye dar qazal-e moʾâser”, Kâvoš-nâme, y. 13, vol.25, pp.135-163.
Kazzâzi, Mir Jalâloddin (1994), Badiʾ, Tehran: Markaz.
Kâšefi Sabzevâri, MirzâHoseyn Vâʾez (1990), Badâyeʾ al-afkâr fi sanâyeʾ al-ašʾâr, ed. Mir Jalâloddin Kazzâzi, Tehran: Našr-e markaz.
Maʾruf, Yahyâ (1999), Al-Aruz al-arabi al-basit, Tehran: Samt.
Marzbâni, Abu Abdollâh Mohammad ibn Emrân (1995), Al-Movaššah fi maâxez al-olamâʾ alâ al-šoʾarâʾ, ed. Mohammad Hoseyn Šams al-Din, Beirut:Dâr al-ketâb al-elmiyyat.
Masʾud Saʾd Salmân (2011) Divân, ed. Mohammad Mehryâr, Tehran: Pežuheš-gāh-e olum-e ensāni va motâleʾât-e farhangi.
Matlub, Ahmad (2006), Moʾjam al-mostalahât al-balâqiyyat va tatavvor-ehâ, Beirut: Dar al-arabiyyat al- mawsuʾât.
Mir Sâdeqi, Meymanat (1994), Farhang-e tafsiliye estelâhât-e fann-e šeʾr va sabk-hâ va maktab-hâye ân, Tehran: Ketâb-e mahnâz.
Mohammad Seddiq (1970), “Omidiye Tehrani”, Helâl, vol.101, pp. 23-27.
Nešât, Mahmud (1972), Zib-e soxan, Tehran: Šerkat-e entešârât-e sajâmiye čâp-e kotob-e Irân.
Preminger ،Princeton Encylopedia of Poetics, Enlarged Edition. 1974
Qirvâni, Ibn Rašiq (1981), Al-Omdato fi mahâsen al-šeʾr va âdâb-ehi va naqd-eh, ed. Mohammad mohyi al-Din Abd al-Hamid, Beirut: Dâr al-jil.
Qodâmat ibn Jaʾfar (1978), Naqd al-šeʾr, ed. Abd al-Monʾem Xafâji, Cairo: Maktabat al-azhariyyat.
Râdfar, Abolqâsem (1996),  Farhang-e balâqi-adabi, Tehran: Ettelâʾât.
Râdviyâni, Omar ibn Mahmud (1983) Tarjemân al-balâqat, ed. Ahmad Âtaš, Tehran: Asâtir.
Râmi, Šaraf al-Din, (1962), Haqâyeq al-hadâyeq, ed. Mohammad Kâzem Emâm, Tehran: Dânešgâh-e Tehran.
Râstgu, Mohammad (2003), Honar-e soxan-ârâyi, Tehran: Samt.
Rommâni, Ali ibn Isâ (1976), Al-Nokat-o fi eʾjâz al-Qorʾân, ed. Mohammad Xalafollâh & Mohammad Zaqlul Salâm, 2nd ed., Cairo: Dâr al-maʾâref be-Mesr.
Sâʾeb Tabrizi (1997), Divân, ed. Mohammad Qahramân, Tehran: Šerkat-e entešârât-e elmi va farhangi.
Šafiʾi Kadkani, Mohammad Rezâ (1994), Musiqiye šeʾr, Tehran: Našr-e âgâh.
Šafiʾiyyun, Saʾid &Mirmohammadi (2009), “Tazriq, nowʾi naqizeye hanjâr-setiz-e tanz-âmiz dar adabiyyât-e fârsi”, Adab-pežuhi, y.3, vol.10, pp. 27-56.
Šafiʾiyyun, Saʾid &Mirmohammadi (2011), “Šeʾr-e bi-maʾnâ dar adabiyyât-e fârsi va englisi”, Naqd-e adabi, vol. 15, pp. 165-186.
Šafiʾiyyun, Saʾid &Mirmohammadi (2019), “Pišnehâd-hâyi barâye sâmân-dehiye tašattot-e taʾârif-e esteʾâre va taqsimâtaš dar balâqat-e fârsi”,  Kohan nâmeye adab-e pârsi, y. 10, vol. 2, issue 29, pp. 1-34.
Šafiʾiyyun, Saʾid &Mirmohammadi (2021), “faxriyye dar adab-e fârsi”, Jostâr-hâye novin-e adabi, vol. 215, pp. 1-26.
Sahbâyi Dehlavi, Emâm-baxš (n.d.), Qowl eysal, Lucknow: Matbaʾeye Monši Nul Kešvar.
Šams al-Olamâye Gorgâni, Mohammad Hoseyn (1998), Abdaʾ al- badâyiʾ,  ed. Hoseyn Jaʾfari, Tabriz: Entešârât-e ahrâr-e Tabriz.
Šams-e Faxriye Esfahâni, Mohammad ibn Faxr al-Din Saʾid (2010), Meʾyâr-e Jamâli va meftâh-e Abu Eshâqi, Tehran: Ketâbxâne, muze va markaz-e asnâd-e majles-e šowrâye eslâmi.
Šams-e Qeis-e Râzi (1981), Al-Moʾjam fi maʾâyiro ašʾâr al-ajam, ed. Mohammad Qazvini, Tehran: Zavvâr.
Sarxoš, Mohammad Afzal (2010), Kalamât al-Šoʾarâʾ, ed. Alirezâ Qazve, Tehran: Ketâbxâne, muze va markaz-e asnâd-e majles-e šowrâye eslâmi.
Skkâki, Abu Yaʾqub (1986), Meftâh al-olum, ed. Naʾim Zarzur, Beirut:Dâr al-ketâb al-elmiyyat.
Soyuti, Abd al-Rahmân ibn Abi Bekr (1984), Al-Etqâno fi olum al-Qorʾân, ed. Mohammad Abolfazl Ebrâhim, Qom.
Tabâtabâyi, Mohammad (1988), Farhang-e estelâhât-e snâyeʾ-e adabi, Mashhad: Âstân-e qods-e razavi.
Tahânavi, Mohammad Ali (1996), Mowsuʾato kaššaf estelâhât al-fonun va al-olum, ed. Abdollâh Xâledi  et al., Beirut: Maktabat Lobnân.
Tâj al-Halâvi, Ali ibn Mohammad (1962), Daqâʾeq al-šeʾr, ed. Mohammad Kâzem Emâm, Teharan: Entešârât-e Dânešgâh-e Tehran.
Tanuxi, Abdollâh Abu Mohsen, (1978), Ketâb al-qavâfi, ed. Owni Abd al-Rauf, Cairo: Maktabat al- Xânji.
Tanuxi, Abu Abdollâh (1909), Al-Aqsâ al-qrib fi elm al-bayân, Cairo: Matbaʾat al-Saʾâdat.
Tarbiyat, Mohammad Ali (1997), ­Dânešmandân-e Âzarbâyejân, Tehran: Našr-e Abu.
Tusi, Xâje Nasir (2009), Meʾyâr al-ašʾâr be hamrâh-e Mizân al-afkâr fi šarh-e Meʾyâr al-ašʾâr az mollâ Mohammad Saʾdollâh Mofti Morâd-âbâdi, ed. Mohammad Fešâraki, Tehran: Mirâs-e maktub.
Vatvât, Rašid al-Din Mohammad (1983), HadAʾeq al- sehr fi daqâʾeq al-šeʾr, ed. Abbâs Eqbâl, Tehran: Sanâʾi.
Xân Ârezu, Serâj al-Din Ali (2004), Majmaʾ al-nafâʾes, ed. Zib al-Nesâ Alixân, Islamabad: Markaz-e tahqiqât-e fârsiye Iran va Pakistan.
Xatib Tabrizi, Yahyâ ibn Ali (2008), Al-Kâfi fa al-Aruz va al-qavâfi, ed. Ebrâhim Šams al-Din, Beirut:Dâr al-ketâb al-elmiyyat.
Zeyf, Šowqi (2017), Târix va tatavvor-e olum-e balâqat,  tr. Mohammad Rezâ Torki, Tehran: Samt.
Zokâyi Beyzâyi, Neʾmatollâh (1985), Naqd al-Šeʾr, Tehran: Selsele našriyyât-e mâ.
θaʾlab, Ahmad ibn Yahyâ (1995), Qavâʾed al-šeʾr, ed. Ramazân Abd al-Tavvâb, Cairo: Maktabat al- Xânji.