Document Type : علمی- پژوهشی


1 PhD student in Persian language and literature, Khodabandeh branch.Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Persian Language and Literature, Islamic Azad University, Abhar Branch, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Persian Language and Literature, Islamic Azad University, Khodabandeh Branch, Iran


Conclusion is one of the most important topics in narratology. The ambiguity and complex structure of the postmodern story, following the form, leads to various conclusions that make the understanding and reception of the results confusing and optimistic for the audience. In modern fiction, Bijan Najdi has created works by breaking the classical form and structure, which has led to various types of endings, which are in the form of rotation or rotation, multiple endings, parallel or parallel, endless end, false, open, definite, proposed for you. The use of these new techniques in the endings of the story by Bijan Najdi has not only contributed significantly to the attractiveness and variety of his works, but also shows his artistic creativity and high writing ability, so that in each of his stories, different examples of these forms can be seen. In this way, the present study, with the aim of explaining the types of endings in Najdi's postmodern novels, descriptively-analytically studies the stories of two groups of cheetahs that ran with me again from the same streets.


Application of Ending in Modernist Stories of Bijan Najdi[1]



The changing taste of the writers and their turning to ambiguity is one of the methods that the modernists take advantage of. Among the characteristics of modernists and one of the significant elements that can be analyzed in postmodern fictional literature is this very sense of interest in ambiguity and complication for creation of the works and reflection of their new thoughts. This tendency unveils itself in different ways including the change in the form of ending the story. In modern fictional literature of Iran, Bijan Najdi (1997-1941) has been very successful in his use of this method. Najdi is one of the capable modernist progressivist fictionists of contemporary Iran whose literary style and the structure of his short stories are very different from other writers. He has consciously made use of different methods for authoring his stories and their ending. Ending is one of the basic and interesting issues discussed by the literary analysts and represents one of the key discussions of the narratology. Ambiguity and complicated structure of the postmodern story along with the form lead to different endings that make the understanding of the results problematic and confusing for the audience. Having broken the classic form and structure, Najdi proceeds to create works leading to different types of ending. Application of these new techniques in the endings of the story by Najdi not only has contributed a lot to the attractiveness and diversity of the works, rather it indicates the high artistic creativity and potentiality of the author. Insofar as the reader in each one of his stories is encountered with a different example of these forms of ending and gets surprised. Thus, this essay using a descriptive-analytic method, discusses various types of ending in Najdi’s postmodern novels. Given the importance of the ending in the success, acceptability and attractiveness of the fictional works, the present essay specifically seeks to find a systematic answer to the following question: Which methods have been used by Najdi for ending his stories and how has the application of these diverse methods in ending contributed to the further attractiveness and influence of his stories?        



This essay is intended to provide an analysis and explanation of the types of ending in Bijan Najdi’s postmodern stories, focusing on his two works entitled Yuzpalangâni ke bâ man davide-‘and “Cheetahs Running with Me” and dobâre az hamân xiyâbân-hâ “Again on the Same Streets”, in order to cast light on the relationship between the application of different endings and the growing attraction, acceptability and influence on the reader. Moreover, the authors seek to show the capability and the creativity of the writer.



After presenting a specific theoretical framework on ending and its significance in fictional texts and introducing and explaining different types of ending, based on a descriptive-analytic method, and in an inductive way, we conduct a case study on two collected stories of “Cheetahs Running with Me” and “Again on the Same Streets”. We intend to extract and report the different and modern forms of ending in these two texts using the method of content analysis.



The findings of the current study show that various and innovative methods used by Najdi for ending consist of decisive ending, probable ending (doubt), artificial ending (wrong), multiple ending (proposed), open ending, uncertain ending, episodic ending and endless ending. Moreover, sometimes following the postmodern movement, uncertainty dominates the whole story and the knots cannot be resolved. This causes the end of the story to end up in multiple endings. Sometimes the writer allows his story to come to end with two or more consequences so that the reader to be hesitant on choosing one of them. In this case, the ending of the story is parallel. On the other hand, the writer makes use of the fake ending to turn his back to the rules and the structure of the classic stories. The goal in this case is a type of sarcasm and entertainment. Sometimes the writer consciously lets the ending to be included at the outset of the story in order to create regress and a sense of futility which is again one of the postmodern elements. On the contrary, sometimes the writer prefers to use episodic ending. In this case, there is no ending at all and no ending should be expected. In other words, when the reader finishes reading the story, s/he recognizes that the writer has already told the whole story at the beginning of the story and the ending is just the repetition of the words said at the outset. Sometimes the ending is left open so that the audience would write the ending of the story in his mind and this is the open ending.     

Keywords:  Ending, Multiple, Regressive, Fake, Parallel, Open, Bijan Najdi



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[1] Ali Kešâvarz Qadimi, Ph.D. Student of Persian Language and Literature, Islamic Azad University of Khodabandah;

Javâd Tâheri (Corresponding Author), Assistant Professor of Persian Language and Literature, Islamic Azad University of Abhar;

Lidâ Nâmdâr, Assistant Professor of Persian Language and Literature, Islamic Azad University of Khodabandah;



Main Subjects


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