Document Type : علمی- پژوهشی


1 PhD student in Persian language and literature group, Branch of Najafabad Islamic Azad University, Najafabad , Iran.

2 Professor of Persian language and literature group, Branch of Najafabad Islamic Azad University, Najafabad , Iran


Persian literary works in verse and prose are included in authoritative document's history of intellectual, linguistics and literary Background about Persian language cultural. Introduced Manuscript of these works and check its features out is an important step in the study of linguistics and literary value of these writings. In this study, we pay attention to introduction and release of corpus of Rashid Tabrizi's Manuscript by descriptive – analytical method and check its method out. Rashid Tabrizi is one of the important poets of the Safavid era in the eleventh century who was related to the Safavid court directly. Corpus of Rashid Tabrizi has important features in terms of intellectual, linguistics, and literary that checking it out has necessary to understand the poetry of the Safavid era and the eleventh century. In general, the most important features of Rashid Tabrizi's poetry at the intellectual level, are praising Imam Ali, praising kings and courtiers, and complained Conditions of the day and art's stagnation. As well as Arabic vocabulary diversity, Mystical Idioms diversity and frequency diversity and mystical terms of the composition of the nominative, accusative and infinitive of the most characteristic of his poetry. The original property of his poetry is The frequency of similes and metaphors in verb in current literary, impressive frequency contradictory the use of puns and row verses feature high frequency.


Introducing and analyzing manuscripts of Rashid Tabrizi’s poem complete works and examining their style


In the Safavid era, social and economic conditions provided a platform for everyone to turn to poetic and poetry with any job and profession to the best of their ability, and to test their poetic talent, and perhaps to leave valuable works. One of these poets who is Rashid Tabrizi known as Rashid Zargar Abbasi (died in 1081 AH) is one of the poets of the 11th century AH.

This poet was goldsmith and was directly related to the Safavid court. There is a collection of poems and several Masnavi from this poet that have important intellectual, linguistic and literary features. Considering the intellectual, linguistic and literary characteristics of these works and also the poet’s relationship with the court of Shah Abbas II, it is necessary to study these works and get acquainted with their characteristics in order to better understand Safavid culture and literature in the 11th century. However, even his complete works have not been corrected and there is no comprehensive and reliable research about the stylistic features of his works. Therefore, the existing manuscripts of the works of this poet have been investigated in this article and its intellectual, linguistic and literary coordinates have been studied and analyzed.


Research Methods

This research has been performed inductively with the help of library tools and note-taking of text data. Also, frequency analyses have been used in stylistic studies. Due to the high volume of verses of the poet’s complete works, the sampling method was used to identify the rhetorical features of Rashid Tabrizi’s works in order to use frequency studies. In this way that two Masnavi of “Golshan-e-Tahqiq” and “Qaza-va-Qadar" which are 729 verses in total (about 10% of the total verses) were identified as the sample and rhetorical features were shown.


Research objectives

The purpose of this research is to become familiar with the manuscripts of the poems of this unknown poet of the Safavid era and to know his poetic style in order to pave the way for further studies about Rashid Tabrizi’s poetry and to take a step towards more and better identification of Persian language and literature in the Safavid period. Also, one of the most important goals of the present study is to show the linguistic, literary and historical importance of Rashid Tabrizi’s complete works in order to provide the necessary ground for proving the necessity of correcting and publishing the poet’s complete works.



The most complete version of Rashid Tabrizi’s works, version of his complete works, is related to the Malek National Library, No. 5266. This version belongs to the 11th century AH (the century of the poet’s own life). All verses of this article are based on the recording of this version. Apart from this version, there are several versions of the poet’s works available in various libraries that the most important of them are as the following:

Manuscript of the Masnavi of “Javaaher-alasraar” belonging to the Library of the University of Tehran (No. 1/8766);

Manuscripts of the Masnavi of “Hasan Glusuz” belonging to the Library of the Islamic Consultative Assembly, Registration No. 1346/48;

And another version of “Hasan Glusuz” from Asghar Mahdavi’s personal library, Registration No. 284/6;

One of the important features of Rashid Tabrizi’s poetry in the field of thought is the praise of Imam Ali (AS), the praise of Safavid kings and the preparation of historical material for court events or the arrival of elders.

The important point is that the number of verses in the description or praise of Imam Ali (AS) is more than the verses in the description or praise of the Prophet of Islam (28 verses) and this shows the importance of this issue in promoting Shiism and Shiite thought by poets.

In all the works of the poet, 144 verses are in praise of the king and the men of the age. The poet has also made history material for different events of his time in the form of praise of great men and kings. These examples are very important in historical studies.

Another feature of his poetry is the extensive use of Seleucid themes and terms of mysticism and Sufism. Despite the scattering of mystical terms and themes in the poet’s works, none of the poet’s Masnavi have no a vertical connection and content coherence; but also, mystical themes are mixed with other themes in all Masnavi.

Complaint of the times and lack of prosperity of art and the incompetence of the rivals, and the idea of predestination are the obvious intellectual features of Rashid Tabrizi’s works. Also, the tone of Rashid Tabrizi’s poetry is sad and desperate especially in the sections where he expresses his condition.

In the field of language, he has avoided difficult Arabic combinations, despite the high frequency of simple and common Arabic words. He has also used some special and new words of the Safavid era in his poetry. Another important feature of his poetry is the high frequency of innovative and creative compositions.

In the field of literature, there is a strong tendency to simile, especially genitive eloquent simile. The high frequency of metaphor in verb and dynamic and active and motor images including virtual documents are the main features of his poetry. Apart from this, the sensuous use and the frequency of paradoxes in his poetry are remarkable.

In the field of music, Rashid Tabrizi’s poetry is very rich. About 30% of Rashid’s verses have Radif (order) and he has used all kinds of puns and phonemes; of course, he did not use puns as much as Haafez and Nezaami.



Rashid Tabrizi’s poetry indicates intellectually some important features of the culture and thought of Safavid-era poets. Items such as paying special attention to Shiite elements, especially velaayat and the supreme position of Imam Ali (AS), using mystical themes alongside moral, romantic, and folk themes, and despair and hopelessness can be seen in the poetry of this poet.

Linguistically, the desire for moderation and the use of new words of the poet’s era are a sign of the connection between the poet’s language and the language of the common people and the historical value of the text.

The poet’s creativity in dynamic images, original compositions and rich inner music show the literary and musical value of the text. Due to all these features and characteristics of the text, it is necessary to correct and publish the complete works of the poet.


Keywords: Rashid Tabrizi, manuscript, intellectual level, linguistic level, literary level.



Tabrizi, Rashid. (Noskheye Khati). Koliyaate Ash-aare Rashid Tabrizi, Ketaabkhaaneye Melliye Malek, No. 5266.

Deraayati, Mostafaa. (1391). Fehrestegaane Noskhehaye Khati Iraan (Fankhaa), Tehran: Sazmaane Asnaad Va Ketaabkhaaneye Melliye Jomhuriye Eslaamiye Iraan.

Fotuhi Rudma-jani, Mahmud. (1391). Sabkshenaasi: Nazariyehaa, Ruykardhaa Va Raveshhaa. Chaape Aval. Tehraan: Sokhan.

Golchine Ma-aani, Ahmad. (1369). Karvane Hend, Chaape Aval, Mashhad: Moasseseye Chaap Va Enteshaaraate Aastaane Qodse Razavi.


Main Subjects

Pâdešâh, M, (Šâd)., (1363), Farhange Âanandrâj, under supervision M, Dabir-siyâqi, Tehran: Xayâm.
Tabrizi, R., (Manuscript), Kolliyât-e Asašʹâr-e Rašid Tabrizi, Tehran: Ketâb-xâneye Melliye Malek, no, 5266.
(Manuscript), Javâher al-asrâr, Ketâb-xaneye Dânešgâhe Tehran, Be Šomâreie 8766,
(Manuscript), (Manuscript), Hasan Gelusuz, Ketâb-xâneye Majles-e Eslâmi, no. 13463/48.
(Manuscript), Hasan Gelusuz, Ketâb-xâneye Asqar Mahdavi,
Jâberi Nasab, N., (1388), “Mohâjerat-e Irâniân be Hend”, Fasl-nâmeye Motâleʹâte Šebhe qârre, 1, pp. 25-56.
Xosravi, Hoseyn, (1397), “BâzŠenâsie vižegihâye sabk-e Hendi”, PežuheŠhâye naqde adabi va sab-kšenâsi, 1 (31), pp. 75-106.
Xalf Tabrizi, Mohammad Hossein, (1393), Borhâne Qâtʹe, ed. M. Moʾin, Tehran: Amir kabir.
Derâyati, M., (1391), Fehrestgân-e Nosxehâye Xattiye Irân (Fanxâ), Tehran: Sâzmâne asnâd va ketâb-xâneye melliye Jomhurie Eslâmie Irân.
Fehrestvâre DastneveŠtehâie Irân (Danâ), Tehran: Ketab-xâneye muze va markaz-e asnâd-e majles-e Šorâye Eslâmi.
Dezfuliânrad, K. & M. Alimadadi & M. Tâlebi, (1389), “Negâhi jâmeʾe-šenâxti be ensejâm-goriziye qazal-e sabk-e hendi”, Fasl-nâmeye tahqiqât-e zabân va adab-e Fârsi, 3, pp. 55-78.
Dowlat-âbadi, A., (1377), Soxanvarân-e Azarbaijan (Az Qatrân tâ šahriyâr), Tabriz: Sotude.
Dehxodâ, A., (1364), Loqat-nâmeye Dehxodâ, Tehran, DâneŠgâh-e Tehran.
Deyhim, M., (1367), Tazkereye Šoʾarâye Azarbaijan, vol. 2, Tehran: Câpe Âzarbâdegân.
Râmpuri, Q. M., (1388), Qiyâs al-loqât, ed. M. Sarvat, Tehran: Amir kabir.
Šafi-i Kadkani, Mohammadrezâ, (1370), Sovare xiyâl dar šeʾr-e Fârsi, Tehran: Âgâh.
Šafiʾi Kadkani, M., (1376), Musiqiye šeʾr, Tehran: Âgâh.
Šamisâ, S., (1390 a), Bayân, Tehran: Mitrâ.
Šamisâ, S., (1389), Anvâʾe Adabi, Câpe Aval, Virâste Chahârom, Tehrân: Mitrâ.
Šamisâ, S., (1383), Sabk-šenâsiye šeʾr, Tehran: Mitrâ.
Šamisâ, S., (1390 b), Negâhi tâze be badi,ʾ Tehran: Mitrâ.
Sabâ, Molavi Mohammad Mozafar Hossein, (1343), Tazkereye ruz-e rowšan, ed. M. H. Roknzâde Âdamiyyat, Tehran: Ketânxâneye Râzi.
Safavi, K., (1390), Az zabân-šenâsi be adabiyyât, Tehran: Pežuheš-kadeye Farhang va Honar-e Eslâmi.
Qolâmrezâi, M., (1377), Sabk-šenâsiye šer-e Pârsi az Rudaki aâ Šâmlu, Tehrân: Jâmi.
Fotuhi Rudma-jaʾni, M., (1391), Sabk-šenâsi: azariyye-hâ, ruykard-hâ va raveš-hâ, Tehran: Soxan.
Qarâyi, F., (1385), Adyân-e Hend, Mašhad: Dânešgâhe Ferdowsiye Mašhad.
Kârdgar, Y. & A. Bâbâyi, (1398), “Bâztâb-e farhang va adabiyyât-e âmme dar Manzume-hâye Qazâ va Qadar-e Fârsi”, Farhang va adabiyyâte âmme, 29, pp. 25-48.
Golčine Maʾâni, A., (1359), Tazkareye Peymâne, Mašhad, Moʾaseeseye čâp va Entešârât-e Dânešgâh-e Mašhad.
Golčine Maʾâni, A., (1369), Kârvân-e Hend, Mašhad, Moʾaseeseye čâp va Entešârât-e Âastân-e Qods-e Razavi.
Likf, G., (1390), “Nazariyyeye moʾâsere esteʾâre”, tr. F. Sojudi, in Esteâre: Mabnâiye tafakkor va abzâr-e Zibâyi-âfarini, ed. F. Sâsâni, Tehran: Pežuheškadeye Farhang va Honare Eslâmi.
Monzavi, A., (1390), Fehrest-e nosxe-hâye xattiye ketab-xâneye Markaz-e Dâyeratolmaʾâref-e Bozorg-e Eslâmi.
Moʾtaman, Z., (1339), Tahavvol-e šeʾr-e Fârsi, Tehran: Šarq.
Nasrâbâdi, Mirzâ Mohammad Tâher, (1352), Tazkereye Nasrâbâdi, ed. Vahid Dastgerdi, Tehran: Ketâb-forušiye Foruqi,
Nowšâhi, Â., (1362), Fehreste Nosxehâye xattiye Fârsiye Muzeye Melliye Pakistan-Karachi, Islamabad: Markaz-e tahqiqât-e fârsiye Iran va Pakistan.
Hedâyat, M., (1353), Golzâr-e jâvidân, Tehran: Zibâ