Associate Professor, Department of Persian Language and Literature, University of Mohaghegh Ardabil i.


The  Nefrin – e Zamin (the curse of land) is a novel which tells the reader about the dispute between tradition and modernity as well as the Intellectual and the rulers. It may also be regarded as a document testifying defeat of the  Intellectualism and tradition. This novel was written by Al –e ahmad to perform his responsibility as an Intellectual. In this novel, he tries to oppose modernity and revival of past religions in some Intellectual and political circles and bourgeoisie economy. From this point of view, in some parts, the novel acts as a political statement and some time realities are ignored as if the author does not wish to see them. Therefore, his views and social theory fails to be generalized. In the present work an attempt is made to investigate the responsibility of intellectual and the concept of modernity. His social theory is also explained according to some of the famous models of explanation in social science and then tradition and modernity is contrasted and a plan of his ideal society is provided. The result of the present study is that this social theory may not be explained according to a single model and in order to explain it more than one model should be drawn upon; all his views are not valid and suffer some weak points; he does not intent to theories and offer solutions, but opposes the present situation as an intellectual.