Document Type : علمی- پژوهشی


1 Department of Persian Language and Literature, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

2 Associate ProfessoAssociate Professor, Department of Persian Language and Literature, Razi University of Kermanshah. Razi University, Iran


One of issues in narratology is the issue of focalization. Gerard Genet chose centralization as a superior view from a perspective that is a transcendental concept of visual side. This perspective is a point of view through which a lot of information is implicitly seen, felt, understood and evaluated. This research with the descriptive-analytical method is used to introduce focalization, its types and aspects in the popular novel Qeydar to examine the narrative information and to organize the validity of this work. The results of this research show that in terms of perception, in the narration of this work, there are two types of focalizer, "external" and "internal" with a position of limited and unlimited focalizers are interacting. The time of this novel is linear. Continuation of events except in the two fifth and ninth chapters, they are retold and most events have a singular frequency. Psychologically, the feelings of the hero of this work can be equated with the feelings of the author. The ideology that governs the atmosphere of Qeydar's novel, which shows the ideology of the author of this work, seeks to introduce the ideal character of Iranian society; a gentle personality a hero, a believer, a fighter and committed to the homeland, of which Qeydar is the supreme example. Amirkhani using the diversity in focalization and addressing the disturbed climate has brought the narration of Qeydar's novel closer to the social reality and has increased its credibility with the audience.



Analysis of the focalization component in Qeydar novel

Mosa Parnian: Department of Persian Language and Literature, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

Ehsan Khanisomar: Department of Persian Language and Literature, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

Khalil Baygzade: Associate Professor, Department of Persian Language and Literature, Razi University. Razi University, Kerman, Iran


Extensive Abstract:


By the end of the nineteenth century, the emergence and maturity of various literary schools had flourished in the literary market, but in the twentieth century they grew astonishing in the humanities. Mixing literature with other disciplines of the humanities has led to interdisciplinary research. At Literature, along with literary criticism, the topic of literary theories emerged. The emergence of theories of linguistics, psychology, sociology and literary narratology is the result of this connection. The first theories of narrative in the nineteenth century, in the school of Russian formalism, inadvertently Propp and with the publication of the book ,entitled The Format of Folk Tales was introduced. According to Makaryk, the narrative is a collection of principles about the spring Narrative genres are the systems that govern the narrative and the structure of the plot (Makaryk, 1385:149). The collection of these rulings pursues specific goals and digs the narrative text with a wide view. Considering these principles and relations and applying theoretical models of narratology in Narrative, eventually it leads to the production of meaning supported by careful scientific research. One of the important issues in the narratology of the problem is focalization. Gerard Genette introduced focalization as a critical issue that was later developed by other theorists. Taslimi used the efficiency of element of focalization in realist stories compared to postmodern stories that take the life of an event into account. He becomes more humorous, "because focusing on these superficial views seeks to create a deeper view of the world around us and of life. Is the narrator's details "(Taslimi,1388: 78). Deep insight to discover the angles of the world around the story simultaneously to the narrator's details is a goal that is pursued in the focalization of Qeydar's novel and the authors try to make this novel based on a theoretical model.


This research was written and analyzed due to a qualitative method with a descriptive-analytical approach, based on narrative theory and the theoretical framework of focalization. In this research, the different aspects of focalization in Qeydar novel are examined, the most important of which is the perceptual aspect. It is the psychological and ideological aspect. Each aspect of focalization is unique in terms of power and breadth. In perceptual aspect, the two components of place and land can be studied. The psychological aspect explains both cognitive and emotional components. In the Ideological aspect , it is also the ideology or worldview that belongs  to the external narrator-focalist, the dominant criterion.


Addressing the narrative perspective of the story and the novel led to the discovery of new information that gave this aspect of the narrative element a special identity, so there were detailed discussions in this regard. One of the issues raised related to the perspective is the issue of focalization. Whereas focalization is connected with point of view is related, but Genette chose the word as a perspective superior to perspective, which has a meaning beyond visual perception; from this On Genette considers the landscape or "perspective" as a technique by which narrative information can be organized. In fact, he said "It can convey more or less detail to the reader, directly or indirectly." (Shoairi, 1389:76). Due to the concept of focalization, it is necceasry to consider somebody who sees and somebody who says, the one who sees is less able to express his personal opinions to help. Hence, the matter of focalization goes back to the latter and makes the narrative more compelling.


Focalization  is the point of view through which the elements and details of the narrative are implicitly seen, felt, understood and evaluated. The study shows that the main point of view in Qedar's novel is the third person (external), but the author focuses on the act of focalization. It does not merely summarize the omniscient, and constantly switches it between the external focalizer and the internal focalizer. Focalization at the beginning of the novel, is self-explanatory, then it is changed to its external type, and the events are narrated from a third-person point of view. The process of change and the exchange of focalization takes place until the end of the novel, and therefore the text of this work can be considered as a multi-layered narrative. Since the In Qeydar's novel, two types of focalizer, "external" and "internal", interact with each other, and the center of narrative focalization is changing between these two types. The visual position (location) of the focalizer also fluctuates in both limited perception position and unlimited perception position. Time in this work is a linear journey and most events happen in the present, but the author sometimes is in a limited way uses retrospective aphasia to justify the narrative events and explain their relationship. Given that the narrative Qeydar's novel has a long trajectory, the continuation of narrative events, except in the fifth and ninth chapters, is retained by maintaining its logical time. The fifth chapter is followed by a detailed description with negative acceleration and the ninth chapter is followed with positive acceleration.

Most events in novel are singular they have frequency appears only in two places. The first time is a repetition of a sentence related to the oath of allegiance addressed to Shahla expresses his true love to her. Another example is stream of consciousness of a third-person narrator who constantly allows the audience to live in Shahla’s sifferring, before getting acquainted with Qeydar. In the psychological aspect, the turning point to the emotional one relates to  the behavior of the deep-impact of Seyed Golpa, who is mentally transformed by meeting him. The ideological aspect, the system of coordination of religious beliefs in the world based on which events and people are evaluated. Gheydar, as the main character of the novel, became the focal point in which all the events and happenings of the story are used to introduce these aspects to the audience. Having a bias towards subordinates and observing the ethics of chivalry towards them, adhering to religious beliefs in conditions of political oppression, protesting against the government system Imperialism, patriotism and defense of the homeland are the most important ideological ideals of Qeydar.


Amirkhani, Reza, (2012), Qeydar, eighth edition, Tehran: Ofogh Publishing.

Tolan, Michael, (2014), Linguistic-Critical Introductory Narrative, translated by Fatemeh Alavi and Fatemeh Nemati, second edition, Tehran: Samt Publications.

Chatman, Seymour (2011), Story and Discourse, translated by Razieh Mirkhandan, Qom: Center for Scientific Research.

Raymond Kenan, Shalimouth (2008) Narrative: Contemporary Poetry, translated by Abolfazl Hori, Tehran: Niloufar.



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